Paul Mellon (1907--1999) assembled one of the world's greatest collections of British drawings and watercolors. In his memoirs he wrote of their "beauty and freshness... their immediacy and sureness of technique, their comprehensiveness of subject matter, their vital qualities, their Englishness." This catalogue celebrating the centenary of Mellon's birth features eighty-eight outstanding watercolors from the fifty thousand works of art on paper with which he endowed the Yale Center for British Art. The selection spans the emergence of watercolor painting in the mid-18th century to its apogee in the mid-19th. These works highlight the diversity of British watercolors, showcasing both landscape and figurative works by some of the principal artists working in the medium, including Thomas Gainsborough, Thomas Rowlandson, William Blake, and J. M.W. Turner.